Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Geology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2 Faculty of Engineering, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, Iran

3 Department of Geology, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran

4 Geological Survey of Iran, Head of Control and Assessment Center, Tehran, Iran


The carbonate sequence of the Asmari Formation is the most important oil reservoir formed in the Zagros Basin, southwestern Iran. In order to interpret the sedimentary environment, the Makhmal-Kuh and Kaka-Reza sections in the Lorestan province were investigated. These sections were compared with some other outcrops in the Zagros Basin. Twenty one genera and species were identified in the Makhmal-Kuh section, and 20 genera and species in the Kaka-Reza section. Among foraminifera, Miogypsina sp ., Amphistegina sp., Elphidium sp., Operculina sp., Nephrolepidina sp., Eulepidina sp., Heterostegina sp., Nummulites fichtelli, Nummulites vascus and Nummulites intermedius are the most important species. Based on the identification of co-occurrence taxa, two assemblage zones are introduced in the Makhmal-Kuh section, and one faunal assemblage zone in the Kaka-Reza section. Petrographic analysis also led to the recognition of twelve microfacies types in the Makhmal-Kuh section and five microfacial types in the Kaka-Reza section. Based on these microfacial types, three sub-environments were determined in the Makhmal-Kuh section and two settings in the Kaka-Reza section: Outer ramp, in the aphotic zone, dominated by planktic foraminifera, bryozoan, and echinoids; the mid ramp, in the oligophotic zone, characterized with benthic foraminifera and planktic foraminifera; the shallower waters of the mesophotic-euphotic zone dominated by benthic foraminifera and coralline red algae in the inner ramp. Therefore, the depositional sub-environments along with biotic assemblages represent warm waters of tropical regions under photic variable conditions in a homoclinal ramp. Based on the distribution of co-occurrence fossils, the Asmari Formation is dated as Rupelian to the Aquitanian.