Document Type : Original Research Paper
Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran
The Oligocene-Lower Miocene Asmari Formation shows considerable reservoir heterogeneity because of variations in the lithology, depositional facies and diagenesis. This paper aim to investigate reservoir heterogeneities using seismic, core and well logs data. Twelve carbonate microfacies and three siliciclastic petrofacies are identified in the Asmari Formation based on well log and core data from 7 wells in the Marun field, which generally indicate a shallowing-up profile. Microfacies changes suggest that the Asmari Formation was deposited in a restricted lagoonal and carbonate ramp setting with periodic clastic sediment supply due to relative sea level fall. Six third-order sequences are recognized in the Asmari Formation from studies of core and well log data, while interpretation of 3D seismic data shows that the formation consists of two second-order seismic sequences. The lowest sequence boundary between the Pabdeh and Asmari Formations (SBI) is a type-2 boundary, and the six others are type-1 sequence boundaries. Six distinct packages of reflectors are interpreted on seismic data through the Cenozoic. The Pabdeh and Asmari Formations can be divided into three packages. Package 1 corresponds to transgressive and highstand systems tract deposits, which mainly consist of shales, marls, and carbonates with interbedded sandstones. This package is overlain by mounded and lenticular seismic facies (package 2) and high-amplitude and continuous seismic reflectors (package 3). Package 2 is predominantly sandstone with interbedded shale, and package3 mainly consists of carbonates. Inversion of seismic data shows that high-porosity zones are present in the western and southern Marun field. A lower high-porosity zone corresponds to lowstand fluvial-deltaic sediments and the upper zone to the beach and shallow marine sandstones.
- Abreu VS, Anderson JB (1998) Glacial eustasy during the Cenozoic: sequence stratigraphic implications. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin 82:1385-1400.
- Allahkarampour Dill M, Vaziri-Moghaddama H, Seyrafiana A, Behdad Ghabeishavi A (2017) Oligo-Miocene carbonate platform evolution in the northern margin of the Asmari intra-shelf basin, SW Iran. Marine and petroleum Geology 92:437-461.
- Amirshahkarami M, Vaziri-Moghaddam H, Taheri A (2007) Paleoenvironmental model and sequence stratigraphy of the Asmari Formation in Southwest Iran. Historical Biology 19:173-183.
- Aqrawi A, Keramati M, Ehrenberg S, Pickard N, Moallemi A, Svånå T, Darke G, Dickson J, Oxtoby N (2006) The origin of dolomite in the Asmari Formatiom (Oligocene-Lower Miocene), Dezful Embayment, SW Iran. Journal of Petroleum Geology 29:381- 402.
- Ashtari A and Arzani A (2016) Seismic spectral decomposition and inversion for buried channels delineation: a case study from the Asmari Reservoir, southwestern Iran. First break 34:49-53.
- Avarjani S, Mahboubi A, Moussavi-Harami R, Amiri-Bakhtiar H, Brenner RL (2015) Facies, depositional sequences, and biostratigraphy of the Oligo-Miocene Asmari Formation in Marun oilfield, North Dezful Embayment, Zagros Basin, SW Iran. Palaeoworld 24:336-358.
- Baratian M, Arian MA, Yazdi A (2020) Petrology and Petrogenesis of Siah Kooh Volcanic Rocks in the Eastern Alborz. Geosaberes 11: 349-363
- Berg OR (1982) Seismic detection and evaluation of delta and turbidite sequences: their application to the exploration for the subtle trap. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin 66:1271-1288.
- Bordenave ML, Burwood R (1990) Source rock distribution and maturation in the Zagros orogenic belt, provenance of the Asmari and Bangestan reservoir oil accumulations. Organic Geochemistry 16:369-387.
- Catuneanu O, Galloway William E, Kendall Christopher G. St. C., Miall Andrew D, Posamentier H W, Strasser A, Tucker Maurice E (2011) Sequence Stratigraphy: Methodology and Nomenclature. Newsletters on Stratigraphy 44/3: 173-245.
- Clarke MWH (1988) Stratigraphy and rock unit nomenclature in the oil-producing area of Interior Oman. Journal of Petroleum Geology 11:5-60.
- Dunham RJ (1962) Classification of carbonate rocks according to depositional textures. In: Ham, W.E., Classification of Carbonate Rocks. American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Memoir 1:108-121.
- Ehrenberg SN, Pickard NAH, Laursen GV, Monibi S, Mossadegh ZK, Svånå TA, Aqrawi AAM, McArthur JM and Thirlwall MF (2007) Strontium isotope stratigraphy of the Asmari Formation (Oligocene-Lower Miocene), Southwest Iran. Journal of Petroleum Geology 30:107-128.
- Embry AF, Klovan JE (1971) A late Devonian reef tract on northeastern Banks Island. Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology 19:730-781.
- Emery D, Myers K (1996) Sequence Stratigraphy. Black well science Ltd London: 297.
- Farzipour S, Yassaghi A, Sherkati S.and Koyi H (2009) Basin evolution of the Lurestan region in the Zagros fold and thrust belt, Iran. Journal of Petroleum Geology 32:5-19.
- Flugel E (2010) Microfacies of Carbonate Rocks, Analysis, Interpretation and Application. Springer-Verlag Berlin.
- Folk RL (1980) Petrology of Sedimentary Rocks. Hemphill Publishing Company, Austin Texas.
- GhasemShirazi B, Bakhshandeh L, Yazdi A (2014) Paleoecology of Upper Cretaceous Sediments in Central Iran, Kerman (Bondar- e Bido Section) Based on Ostracods. Marine Science 4 (2): 49-57
- Goff JC, Jones RW, Horbury AD (1995) Cenozoic basin evolution of the northern part of the Arabian Plate and its control on hydrocarbon habitat. Middle East Petroleum Geosciences 94:02-412.
- Haq B, Hardenbol J, Vail P (1988) Mesozoic and Cenozoic chronostratigraphy and cycles of sea level change. In: Wilgus CK, Hastings BS, Kendall CGSC, Posamentier HW, Ross CA, Van Wagoner JC, (eds.), Sea-Level Changes: an integrated approch, The Society of Economic Palaeontologists and Mineralogists Special Publication 42:71-108.
- Heydari E (2008) Tectonics versus eustatic control on supersequences of the Zagros Mountains of Iran. Tectonophysics 451:56-70.
- James GA, Wynd JG (1965) Stratigraphic nomenclature of Iranian Oil Consortium Agreement Area. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin 49(12): 2182-2245.
- Jones R, Racey A (1994) Cenozoic stratigraphy of the Arabian Peninsula and Gulf. In Simmons MD, (ed.), Micropalaeontology and Hydrocarbon Exploration in the Middle East. Chapman and Hall London.
- Mahboubi A, Moussavi-Harami R, Mansouri-Daneshvar P, Nadjafi M, Brenner RL (2006) Upper Maastrichtian depositional environments and sea-level history of the Kopet-Dagh Intracontinental Basin, Kalat Formation, NE Iran. Facies 52:237-248.
- Motiei H (1993) Stratigraphy of Zagros (Treatise on the Geology of Iran, in Persian). Geological Survey of Iran, Tehran.
- Nio S, Brouwer J, Smith D, De Jong M, Böhm A (2005) Spectral trend attribute analysis, Applications in the stratigraphic analysis of wireline logs. First Break 23:71-75.
- Pomar L, Mateu-Vicens G, Morsilli M, Brandano M, (2014) Carbonate ramp evolution during the late Oligocene (chattian), Salento peninsula, southern Italy. Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology 404 (0): 109-132.
- Poorbehzadi K, Yazdi A, Sharifi Teshnizi E, Dabiri R (2019) Investigating of Geotechnical Parameters of Alluvial Foundation in Zaram-Rud Dam Site, North Iran. International Journal of Mining Engineering and Technology 1(1): 33-34
- Posamentier HW, Jervey MT, Vail PR (1988) Eustatic controls on clastic deposition I-Conceptual framework. In: Wilgus CK, Hastings BS, Kendall CGSC, Posamentier HW, Ross CA, Van Wagoner JC, (eds.), Sea-Level Changes: an integrated approch. Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists Special Publication 42, Tulsa Oklahoma:110-124.
- Sangree J, Widmier J (1977) Seismic interpretation of clastic depositional facies (part 9). In: Payton CE, (ed.), Seismic Stratigraphy, Applications to Hydrocarbon Exploration. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Memoir 26, Tulsa Oklahoma:165-184.
- Seilacher A (2007) Trace fossil analysis. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg: 226.
- Sepehr M, Cosgrove J (2004) Structural framework of the Zagros fold–thrust belt, Iran. Marine and Petroleum Geology 21:829-843.
- Sharland P, Archer R, Casey D, Davies RB, Hall S, Heward A, Horbury A, Simmons, M., (2001) Arabian Plate Sequence Stratigraphy: GeoArabia, Special Publication 2, Bahrain.
- Sharland PR, Casey DM, Davies RB, Simmons MD, Sutcliffe OE (2004) Arabian Plate Sequence Stratigraphy–revisions to Special Publication 2, GeoArabia 9:199-214.
- Van Buchem F, Allan T, Laursen G, Lotfpour M, Moallemi A, Monibi S, Motiei H, Pickard N, Tahmasbi A, Vedrenne V (2010) Regional stratigraphic architecture and reservoir types of the Oligo-Miocene deposits in the Dezful Embayment (Asmari and Pabdeh Formations) SW Iran. Geological Society London Special Publication 329:219-263.
- Van Wagoner JC, Posamentier HW, Mitchum RM, Vail PR, Sarg JF, Loutit TS, Hardenbol J (1988) An overview of the fundamentals of sequence stratigraphy and key definitions. In: Wilgus CK, Hastings BS, Posamentier H, Van Wagoner J, Ross CA, Kendall CGSC, (eds.), Sea-Level Changes: an integrated approach, Society of Economic Palaeontologists and Mineralogists, Special Publication 42:39-45.
- Vaziri-Moghaddam H, Kimiagari M, Taheri A (2006) Depositional environment and sequence stratigraphy of the Oligo-Miocene Asmari Formation in SW Iran. Facies 52:41-51.
- Vaziri-Moghaddam H, Seyrafian A, Taheri A and Motiei H (2010) Oligocene-Miocene ramp system (Asmari Formation) in the NW of the Zagros Basin, Iran, Microfacies, paleoenvironment and depositional sequence. Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Geológicas 27:56-71.
- Wilson JL, (1975) Carbonate Facies in Geologic History. Springer-Verlag Berlin.
- Yazdi A, Shahhosini E, Dabiri R, Abedzadeh H (2019) Magmatic differentiation evidences and source characteristics using mineral chemistry in the Torud intrusion (Northern Iran). Revista Geoaraguaia 9(2): 1-21
- Yazdi A, Sharifi Teshnizi E (2021) Effects of contamination with gasoline on engineering properties of fine-grained silty soils with an emphasis on the duration of exposure, Springer, SN Applied Sciences 3:704.
- Zabihi Zoeram F, Vahidinia M, Mahboubi A and Amiri Bakhtiar H (2013) Facies analysis and sequence stratigraphy of the Asmari Formation in the northern area of Dezful Embayment, south-west Iran. Studia UBB Geologia 58:45-56.