Document Type : Original Research Paper


1 Department of Earth & Environmental Sciences, Hazara University Mansehra KPK, Pakistan

2 Institute of Geology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan

3 Department of Geology, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan KPK, Pakistan

4 Department of Earth Sciences, Quaid -e- Azam University Islamabad, Paksitan

5 National Academy of Higher Education (NAHE) Islamabad 44000, Pakistan


       The Eastern Suleiman Fold and Thrust Belt comprises of a thick cover of sedimentary sequences. Despite of presence of complete petroleum system source, reservoir and seal rocks less attention was paid by the exploration and production companies to prospect. An integrated approach is adopted to delineate reservoir potential and net pay zones in the clastic reservoirs of the Cretaceous age widely distributed in the area. Wireline logs and migrated seismic reflection data were used for field development and optimization. Petrophysical analysis reveals that Pab Sandstone of the Cretaceous age is acting as a reservoir rock, whereas the Ghazij Shales of the Eocene age are acting as a regional seal rock. A complete workflow is proposed for formation evaluation, and structural interpretation of the subsurface geology. Based on wireline logs it is interpreted that the thickness of the Pab Sandstone varies from 250 m to 350 m in the entire study area. The sandstone is massive with high porosity and intercalated layers of shales. Faulted anticlinal structures are present in the study area which are favorable for the accumulation of hydrocarbon. 3D structural models and various seismic attribute models were prepared to analyze the reservoir character of this clastic reservoir. Based on wireline logs and seismic data clean sand, shaly sand and shale are marked as dominant facies in the study area. However, clean sand facies are more favorable to act as potential net pay zone.


  1. Afzal J, Kuffner T, Rahman A, Ibrahim, M (2009) Seismic and Well-log Based Sequence Stratigraphy of The Early Cretaceous, Lower Goru “C” Sand of The Sawan Gas Field, Middle Indus Platform, Pakistan. Proceedings, Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE)/Pakistan Association of Petroleum Geoscientists (PAPG) Annual Technical Conference, Islamabad, Pakistan. November 17th to 18th.
  2. Ahmed N, Khalid P, Shafi HMB, Connolly P (2017) DHI evaluation by combining rock physics simulation and statistical techniques for fluid identification of Cambrian-to-Cretaceous clastic reservoirs in Pakistan. Acta Geophysica 65(5): 991 – 1007.
  3. Ahmed R, Ali SM (1991) Tectonic and structural development of the eastern part of Kirthar Fold Belt and its hydrocarbon prospects: Pakistan Journal of Hydrocarbon Research 3(2): 19-31.
  4.  Ali SM, Ahmed J, Ahmed R (1995) Evidence of wrench tectonics in the Suleiman Fold Belt, Pakistan and its implication for hydrocarbon prospects: Abstract and Paper presented in 2nd South Asian Geological Congress, Colombo, Sirlanka. January 19th to 24th.
  5. Archie GE (1952) Classification of carbonate reservoir rocks and petrophysical considerations. Aapg Bulletin 36(2): 278-298.
  6. Asquith, G, Krygowski D (2004) Basic well log analysis: AAPG Methods in Exploration 16: 31-35.
  7. Azeem T, Chun WY, Khalid P, Ehsan MI, Rehman F, Naseem AA (2018) Sweetness analysis of Lower Goru sandstone intervals of the Cretaceous age, Sawan gas field, Pakistan. Episodes 41(4): 235 – 247.
  8. Baker MA, Jackson RO (1964) Geological map of Pakistan 1:2,000,000: Geological Survey of Pakistan, Quetta.
  9. Bannert D, Iqbal M, Helmcke D (1995) Surface and Subsurface evidence for the existence of the Suleiman Basement fault of the north-western Indian plate in Pakistan: Abstract, South Asian Geological Congress, Colombo, Sri Lanka January 19th to 24th: 21.
  10. Bannert D, Raza HA (1992) the Segmentation of the Indian Plate Pakistan Journal of Hydrocarbon Research, Islamabad 4(2): 5-18.
  11. Baratian M, Arian MA, Yazdi A (2018) Petrology and petrogenesis of the SiahKuh intrusive Massive in the South of KhoshYeilagh, Amazonia Investiga 7 (17): 616-629
  12. Esfahani NM, Asghari O (2013) Fault detection in 3D by sequential Gaussian simulation of rock quality designation (RQD) case study: Gazestan phosphate ore deposit, Central Iranian. Arabian Journal of Geosciences 6: 3737- 3747.
  13. Haldorsen HH, Damsleth E (1990) Stochastic Modeling. Journal of Petroleum Technology 42(4): 404-412.
  14. Hardage BA, Remington RL (1999) 3D Seismic Stratal Surface Concepts Applied to the Interpretation of a Fluvial Channel System Deposited in a High-Accommodation Environment. Geophysics 64(2): 609-620.
  15. Humayun M, Lillie, RJ, Lawrence RD (1991) Structural interpretation of the eastern Suleiman Fold Belt and fore deep, Pakistan. Tectonics 10: 299-324.
  16. Hunting Survey Corporation (1960) Reconnaissance Geology of Part of West Pakistan: A Colombo Plan Cooperative Project, in Toronto, Published for the Government of Pakistan by the Government of Canada 522-550.
  17. Iqbal M, Chaudhry MN, Bannert D (2008) Hydrocarbon Exploration Concepts for the Eastern Frontal part of Suleiman Fold Belt, Pakistan: Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE)/Pakistan Association of Petroleum Geoscientists (PAPG) Annual Technical Conference, Islamabad, Pakistan, May 7th -8th.
  18. Jadoon IAK, Lawrence RD, Khan SH (1994) Marri-Bugti pop up Zone in the Central Suleiman Fold Belt, Pakistan, Journal of Structural Geology 16: 147-158.
  19. Kazmi AH, Jan, MQ (1997) Geology and Tectonic of Pakistan, Graphics Publishers, Karachi, Pakistan 133.
  20. Kemal A, Balkwill HR,  Stoakes FA  (1992) Indus Basin hydrocarbon plays, in Ahmed G, Kemal A, Zaman ASH, and Humayon M, eds, New directions and strategies for accelerating petroleum exploration and production in Pakistan: Proceedings of an international petroleum seminar, Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Resources, Islamabad, Pakistan, November 22nd to 24th: 76-105.
  21. Khalid P, Ahmed N, Din ZU, Missen MMS (2018b) Estimation of reservoir properties from well logs and core plugs to reduce uncertainty in Formation evaluation: a case study from the Kohat-Potwar Geologic Province, Episodes 41(1): 59 – 68.
  22. Khalid P, Ehsan MI, Akram S, Din ZU, Ghazi S (2018a) Integrated Reservoir Characterization and Petrophysical Analysis of Cretaceous Sands in Lower Indus Basin, Pakistan. Journal of the Geological Society of India, 91(6): 736 – 742.
  23. Khan MA, Ahmed R, Raza HA, Kemal A (1986) Geology of petroleum in Kohat-Potwar depression, Pakistan: American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, 70(4): 396-414.
  24. Khan N, Scarselli N (2020) Seismostratigraphic architecture of the suleiman fold-thrust belt front (Pakistan): Constraints for resource potential of the cretaceous-paleogene strata in the east Gondwana fragment. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 104598.
  25. Malik Z, Kemal A Azam, M, Bodenhausen JWA (1988) “Petroleum potential and prospects in Pakistan” in Raza HA, Sheikh AM, eds, Petroleum for the future, Islamabad.
  26. Mollai H, Dabiri R, Torshizian HA, Pe-Piper G, Wang W (2019) Cadomian crust of Eastern Iran: evidence from the Tapeh Tagh granitic gneisses, International Geology Review (in Press).
  27. Nazeer A, Solangi SH, Brohi IA, Usmani P, Napar LD, Jahangir M, Hameed S, Ali SM (2013) Hydrocarbon Potential of Zinda Pir Anticline, Eastern Suleiman Fold Belt, Middle Indus Basin, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Hydrocarbon 22: 73-84.
  28. Otari M, Dabiri R (2015) Geochemical and environmental assessment of heavy metals in soils and sediments of Forumad Chromite mine, NE of Iran, Journal of Mining and Environmental (International Journal of Mining and Environmental 6(2): 251-261.
  29. Peresson H, Daud F (2009) Integrating Structural Geology and GIS: Wrench Tectonics and Exploration Potential in the Eastern Sulaiman Fold Belt. Proceedings, Pakistan Association of Petroleum Geoscientists (PAPG)/Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE) Annual Technical Conference, Islamabad, Pakistan, November 17th to 18th.
  30. Poorbehzadi K, Yazdi A, Sharifi Teshnizi E, Dabiri R (2019) Investigating of Geotechnical Parameters of Alluvial Foundation in Zaram-Rud Dam Site, North Iran. International Journal of Mining Engineering and Technology 1(1): 33-34.
  31. Raza HA, Ahmed R, Ali SM, Ahmad J (1989) Petroleum Prospects, Suleiman Sub Basin, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Hydrocarbon Research 1(2): 21-56.
  32. Shah SMI (2009) Stratigraphy of Pakistan: Memoir of Geological Survey of Pakistan 22: 149.
  33. Woodhouse R, Warner HR (2005) SW and Hydrocarbon Pore Volume Estimates in Shaly Sands-Routine Oil-Based-Mud Core Measurements Compared With Several Log Analysis Models. In SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition. Society of Petroleum Engineers.
  34. Yazdi A, Sharifi Teshnizi E (2021) Effects of contamination with gasoline on engineering properties of fine-grained silty soils with an emphasis on the duration of exposure, Springer, SN Applied Sciences 3:704.