Document Type : Original Research Paper


1 Department of Geology, Shiraz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shiraz, Iran

2 Department of Geology, Payame Noor University, Faculty of Science Center of Shiraz, Iran


In the easternmost part of the Izeh Zone of the Zagros Mountains, the Kazhdumi Formation of upper Aptian-middle Albian interval is superbly exposed in three-main exposures as argillaceous carbonate facies. The main bioclastic components of the Kazhdumi Formation are Orbitolinid and other larger benthic foraminifers, planktonic foraminifera and calcareous algae. The depositional system in the study area during the upper Aptian-middle Albian corresponds to a shaly carbonate ramp. Two depositional sequences are determined, as prograding system from west to east. Comparison of the proposed depositional sequences with those reported in the Arabian Plate and adjacent areas suggests a correlation with the global sea-level curve. The Lower Cretaceous, Aptian carbonates of Kazhdumi Formation contain nine microfacies, which were deposited on a ramp system deepened in both directions (west and east). Stratigraphic sequence led to recognize two third-order sequences. On the other hand, rudstone and boundstone lithofacies of the studied formation have higher reservoir potential and were deposited during Apt 3 and Apt 5 sequences of the Arabian Plate. The Kazhdumi Formation in the study area was deposited in an intrashelf basin that should be classified as an independent basin in the future paleogeographic maps of the southwest Iran. We interpret the Kazerun Fault, as a crustal warping of basement faults of the Arabian Plate boundary, which were responsible for the creation of the intrashelf basin in the study area.


  1. Abdollahi E, Vahidi Niya M (2014) Biostratigraphy of the Kazhdumi Formation in the Tang Mahgar section, northwest of Behbahan, based on Planktonic. Journal of Paleontology 1 (2): 49-62 (In Persian).
  2. Afghah M, Fanati Rashidi R (2007) Study of microfacies of Kazhdumi Formation in North East of Shiraz (Ab Changzhou Mountain). Quarterly Journal of Applied Geology1: 17-22 (In Persian).
  3. Al-Husseini MI (2000) Origin of the Arabian plate structures: Amar collision and Najd rift, Geoarabia manama 5: 527-542.
  4. Al-Husseini MI, Matthews R (2010) Middle East Geologic Time Scale, Late Albian, Cenomanian and Turonian Natih Supersequence of Oman: Type section for Orbiton 7: 103.106-189.100.
  5. Al-Husseini MI, Matthews RK, van Buchem F, Maurer F, Droste H (2010) Tuning Late Barremian–Aptian Arabian Plate and global sequences with orbital periods, Barremian–Aptian stratigraphy and hydrocarbon habitat of the eastern Arabian Plate, GeoArabia Special Publication 4:199-228.
  6. Bazoobandi MH, Arian MA, Emami MH, Tajbakhsh G, Yazdi A (2016) Petrology and Geochemistry of Dikes in the North of Saveh in Iran, Open journal of marine science 6(02): 210-222.
  7. Berberian M, King G (1981) Towards a paleogeography and tectonic evolution of Iran: Reply, Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 18:1764-1766.
  8. Bolz H (1977) Synsedimentary tectonics in Bangestan Group of Kharg. NIOC, Report No.1275.
  9. Bordenave M, Huc A (1995) The Cretaceous source rocks in the Zagros foothills of Iran. Revue de Linstitut Français du Ptrole 50(6): 727-752.
  10. Caron M (1985) Cretaceous planktic foraminifera. In: Bolli, H.M., Saunders, J.B., & Perch-Nielsen K, (Eds.), Plankton stratigraphy. Cambridge University Press: 17-86.
  11. Dunham RJ (1962) Classification of carbonate rocks according to depositional textures: 108-121.
  12. Esmeray-Senlet S, Özkan-Altiner S, Altiner D, Miller K (2015) Planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy, microfacies analysis, sequence stratigraphy, and sea-level changes across the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary in Hayman basin, Central Anatolia, Turkey, Journal of Sedimentary Research 85: 489-508.
  13. Falcon NL (1961) Major earth-flexuring in the Zagros Mountains of south-west Iran. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society 117: 367-376.
  14. Gabb WM (1869) Cretaceous and Tertiary fossils, Geological Survey of California, Paleontology 2: 1-299.
  15. Geel T (2000) Recognition of stratigraphic sequences in carbonate platform and slope deposits: empirical models based on microfacies analysis of Palaeogene deposits in southeastern Spain. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 155(3-4): 211-238.
  16. Ghasemi-Nejad E, Head MJ, Naderi M (2009) Palynology and petroleum potential of the Kazhdumi Formation (Cretaceous: Albian–Cenomanian) in the South Pars field, northern Persian Gulf. Marine and Petroleum Geology 26(6): 805-816.
  17. Ghasem Shirazi B, Bakhshandeh L, Yazdi A (2014) Biozonation and Paleobathymetry on Foraminifera Upper Cretaceous Deposites of Central Iran Basins (Isfahan, Baharestan Section), Open Journal of Geology 4 (8): 343-353.
  18. Gorbachik T (1971) Abrief characteristic of Cretaceous and Paleogene deposits of the Mountain Crimea. In XII European Micropaleontological Colloquium: 13-28.
  19. Gradstein F, Ogg J (2004) Geologic time scale 2004–why, how, and where next, Lethaia 37(2): 175-181.
  20. Hardenbol J, Thierry J, Farley MB, Jacquin T, De Graciansky PC, Vail PR (1998) Mesozoic and Cenozoic sequence chronostratigraphic framework of European basins.
  21. Heydari E (2008) Tectonics versus eustatic control on supersequences of the Zagros Mountains of Iran. Tectonophysics 451(1-4): 56-70.
  22. James G, Wynd J (1965) Stratigraphic nomenclature of Iranian oil consortium agreement area. AAPG Bulletin 49(12): 2182-2245.
  23. Kent PT, Warman HR (1951) An environmental review of the world richest Oil-bearing region the Middle East, 24 internt. Geological Congress Canada Proc
  24. Khalili M (1976) The biostratigraphic synthesis of the Bangestan Group in southwest Iran. Iranian oil operating companies. Geological and Exploration Division, Report 1219: 76.
  25. Langer MR (2008) Assessing the Contribution of Foraminiferan Protists to Global Ocean Carbonate Production 1. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 55(3): 163-169.
  26. Maghfouri Moghaddam I, Shams P, Parvaneh Nejad Shirazi M (2016) Systematic of Albian-Cenomanian gastropods and bivalves from the Kazhdumi formation, Zagros Basin, Journal of Sciences 27:237-252. 
  27. Mahdavi M, Dabiri R, Hosseini ES (2015) Magmatic evolution and compositional characteristics of tertiary volcanic rocks associated with the Venarch manganese mineralization, SW Qom, central Iran, Earth Sciences Research Journal 19 (2):141-145
  28. Maurer F, Van Buchem FS, Eberli GP, Pierson BJ, Raven MJ, Larsen PH, Al‐Husseini MI, Vincent B (2013) Late Aptian long‐lived glacio‐eustatic lowstand recorded on the Arabian Plate, Terra Nova 25:87-94.
  29. Morshedian A, MacEachern JA, Dashtgard SE (2012). Integrated ichnology, sedimentology and stratigraphy of the Lower Cretaceous Sparky alloformation (Mannville Group), Lloydminster area, west-central Saskatchewan, Canada, Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology 60:69-92
  30. Motiei H (1993) Stratigraphy of Zagros. Treatise on the Geology of Iran 60: 151.
  31. Nazari Sarem M, Vosoghi Abedini M, Dabiri R, Ansari M.R (2021) Geochemistry and petrogenesis of basic Paleogene volcanic rocks in Alamut region, Alborz mountain, north of Iran. Earth Sciences Research Journal 25(2): 237-245.
  32. Nishi H, Takashima R, Hatsugai T, Saito T, Moriya K, Ennyu A, Sakai T (2003) Planktonic foraminiferal zonation in the Cretaceous Yezo Group, Central Hokkaido, Japan, Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 21:867-886
  33. Ogg JG, Ogg GM, Gradstein FM (2016) A concise geologic time scale: Elsevier.
  34. Parvaneh Nejad Shirazi M (2009) Green algae from the Lower Cretaceous carbonate of northern Shiraz (Zagros Mountains, SW Iran). Historical Biology 21(1-2): 91-98.
  35. Parvaneh Nijad Shirazi M, Abedi F (2013) Lower Cretaceous orbitolinid (Foraminiferida) record from the southwest of Iran (Zagros, Shiraz). Open Journal of Geology 3(1): 1-6.
  36. Parvaneh Nijad Shirazi M, Bahrami M, Rezaee B, Gharamani S (2011) Microbiostratigraphy of Kazhdumi formation in the Northwestern Shiraz (Southwest Iran) on the basis of foraminifera and calcareous algae. Acta Geologica SinicaEnglish Edition 85(4): 777-783.
  37. Pierson BJ, Eberli GP, Al-Mehsin K, Al-Menhali S, Warrlich G, Droste HJ, Maurer F, Whitworth J, Drysdale D, van Buchem F (2010) Seismic stratigraphy and depositional history of the Upper Shu’aiba (Late Aptian) in the UAE and Oman, Barremian–Aptian stratigraphy and hydrocarbon habitat of the eastern Arabian Plate GeoArabia Special Publication 4:411-444.
  38. Pittet B, Van Buchem FS, Hillgärtner H, Razin P, Grötsch J, Droste H (2002) Ecological succession, palaeoenvironmental change, and depositional sequences of Barremian–Aptian shallow‐water carbonates in northern Oman, Sedimentology 49:555-581.
  39. Poorbehzadi K, Yazdi A, Sharifi Teshnizi E, Dabiri R (2019) Investigating of Geotechnical Parameters of Alluvial Foundation in Zaram-Rud Dam Site, North Iran. International Journal of Mining Engineering and Technology 1(1): 33-34.
  40. Premoli Silva I, Verga D (2004) Practical manual of Cretaceous planktonic foraminifera. International school on planktonic foraminifera, 3rd course: Cretaceous. Universities of Perugia and Milan, Tiporafia Pontefelcino, Perugia (Italy): 283.
  41. Rasser MW, Scheibner C, Mutti M (2005) A paleoenvironmental standard section for Early Ilerdian tropical carbonate factories (Corbieres, France; Pyrenees, Spain), Facies 51:218-232
  42. Scholle PA, Bebout DG, Moore CH (1983) Carbonate depositional environments: AAPG Memoir 33.
  43. Schroeder R, van Buchem FS, Cherchi A, Baghbani D Vincent B, Immenhauser A, Granier B (2010) Revised orbitolinid biostratigraphic zonation for the Barremian–Aptian of the eastern Arabian Plate and implications for regional stratigraphic correlations, GeoArabia Special Publication 4:49-96.
  44. Sepehr M, Cosgrove J (2005) Role of the Kazerun Fault Zone in the formation and deformation of the Zagros Fold‐Thrust Belt, Iran. Tectonics 24(5).
  45. Sharland PR, Casey DM, Davies RB, Simmons MD, Sutcliffe OE (2004) Arabian plate sequence stratigraphy–revisions to SP2, GeoArabia 9:199-214.
  46. Sigal J (1977) Essai de zonation du Crétacé méditerranéen à l'aide des foraminifères planctoniques. Géologie méditerranéenne 4(2): 99-107.
  47. Srivastava V, Singh B (2017) Facies analysis and depositional environments of the early Eocene Naredi Formation (Nareda locality), Kutch, Western India, Carbonates and Evaporites 32:279-293. 
  48. Stocklin J (1968) Structural history and tectonics of Iran: a review. AAPG Bulletin 52(7): 1229-1258.
  49. Takin M (1972) Iranian geology and continental drift in the Middle East. Nature: 235(5334): 147-150.
  50. Van Buchem FS, Al-Husseini MI, Maurer F, Droste HJ, Yose LA (2010a) Sequence-stratigraphic synthesis of the Barremian–Aptian of the eastern Arabian Plate and implications for the petroleum habitat, Barremian-Aptian stratigraphy and hydrocarbon habitat of the eastern, Arabian Plate GeoArabia Special Publication 4:9-48
  51. Van Buchem FS, Baghbani D, Bulot LG, Caron M, Gaumet F, Hosseini A, Keyvani F, Schroeder R, Swennen R, Vedrenne V (2010b) Barremian-Lower Albian sequence-stratigraphy of southwest Iran (Gadvan, Dariyan and Kazhdumi formations) and its comparison with Oman, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates, GeoArabia Special Publication 4:503-548.
  52. van Hinte J (1976) A Cretaceous time scale. AAPG Bulletin 60(4): 498-516.
  53. Wynd J (1965) Biofacies of the Iranian oil consortium agreement area. IOOC Report 1082.
  54. Yazdi A, Sharifi Teshnizi E (2021) Effects of contamination with gasoline on engineering properties of fine-grained silty soils with an emphasis on the duration of exposure, Springer, SN Applied Sciences 3:704.
  55. Yose L, Strohmenger C, Al-Hosani I, Bloch G, Al-Mehairi Y (2010) Sequence-stratigraphic evolution of an Aptian carbonate platform (Shu’aiba Formation), eastern Arabian plate, onshore Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, Barremian-Aptian stratigraphy and hydrocarbon habitat of the eastern Arabian Plate GeoArabia Special Publication 4:309-340.